Around 1850, Napoleon III decided that he wanted to transform medieval Paris into a modern capital city. Drawing inspiration from London, he asked Baron Haussman to remodel entire neighbourhoods, fill them with avenues and boulevards and create clear, open squares, all to open out the city. La place de l'Étoile is where Haussmann's Arc de Triomphe lies, at the meeting point of twelve avenues, including the world's most beautiful -The Champs Élysées. The avenue can be found on the Axe Historique which continues up to the Place de la Concorde, the Tuileries Gardens and the Louvre. This is how Paris's old, picturesque little streets were transformed into grand boulevards, lined with trees and big stone residences. This is how La Madeleine boulevard was born, as well as that of the Opera and Sébastopol, which cross the north-south axis of Paris. Another noteworthy one is the mythical Saint-Germain boulevard, running parallel to theSeine River alongside the left river bank, going from east to west and crossing the Latin Quarter.